Tags: Race Track and Racino Regions: US Canterbury Park Holding Corporation, operator of Canterbury Park racecourse in Minnesota, has reported a $925,976 net loss for the first half of 2020, after it was forced to temporarily close the venue due to the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic.Net operating revenue in the six months to June 30 totalled $13.7m, down 51.1% from $28.0m in the same period last year.Canterbury shut its racecourse on March 16, in line with measures to combat the spread of Covid-19, and did not reopen the facility until June 9. This, Canterbury said, led to a significant drop in revenue, as it temporarily lost its primary source of income for a large portion of the first half.The shutdown of operations at the racecourse meant operating expenses for the period were lower, with the $15.9m spent in H1 down 40.5% from $15.9m last year.However, this reduction in spending was not enough to offset the year-on-year decline in revenue, and Canterbury posted an operating loss of $2.2m, compared to a profit of $1.3m at the same point in 2019.Read the full story on iGB North America. Canterbury Park Holding Corporation, operator of Canterbury Park racecourse in Minnesota, has reported a $925,976 net loss for the first half of 2020, after it was forced to temporarily close the venue due to the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic. Email Address 11th August 2020 | By contenteditor Topics: Finance Sports betting Horse racing AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitter Subscribe to the iGaming newsletter Canterbury Park posts $925,976 loss following Covid-19 upheaval Finance
Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) listed on the Uganda Securities Exchange under the Banking sector has released it’s 2012 interim results for the half year.For more information about Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited (SBU.ug) 2012 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileStanbic Bank Uganda Limited is a leading financial institution in Uganda offering banking products and services to the retail, commercial and corporate segments. Its product offering ranges from savings, fixed deposits and call accounts to term loans, mortgage lending products and vehicle and equipment finance. The commercial division offers investment banking services ranging from corporate finance, debt primary market, securitisation and equity capital to exchange control advisory, credit trading, equity derivatives and interest rate trading and lending. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited targets the oil and gas, power and infrastructure, public, consumer and financial institution sectors in Uganda. The company has an extensive network of branches, ATMs and customer service centres. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited is a subsidiary of Stanbic Africa Holdings Limited. Stanbic Bank Uganda Limited is listed on the Uganda Securities Exchange
P. O. L. I. C. Y Limited (POL.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Investment sector has released it’s 2013 interim results for the third quarter.For more information about P. O. L. I. C. Y Limited (POL.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the P. O. L. I. C. Y Limited (POL.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: P. O. L. I. C. Y Limited (POL.mu) 2013 interim results for the third quarter.Company ProfileP.O.L.I.C.Y Limited is an investment company that was established as a liability company. P.O.L.I.C.Y Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
UF/IFAS in Apopka will temporarily house District staff; saves almost $400,000 In moments like these, doctors, nurses, and technicians lean on their training for most of the required actions. But in every calamitous circumstance—and this is a calamitous medical emergency—there are intricacies that could never have been predicted. And that’s where improvisation comes in. Things that would never be done under normal circumstances can end up saving lives—police cars broke protocol after the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and put bleeding victims into the back seats of their units and drove them to the hospital themselves, rather than waiting for ambulances. This move, which had also occurred after the Aurora, Colorado, shooting, likely lowered the death toll. Reply Please enter your name here LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply TAGSFirst RespondersGun related incidentsHospitals Previous articleIn case you missed it: The Apopka news week in reviewNext articleYour First Mammogram: What You Need To Know Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Florida gas prices jump 12 cents; most expensive since 2014 You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here An emergency department after a mass casualty incident is the quintessence of the Mike Tyson rule: Everyone has a plan until they get punched in the mouth. On Sunday night, Las Vegas was more than punched in the mouth—after experiencing the new deadliest mass shooting in U.S. history, more than 50 have been pronounced dead. The 500 injured in the shooting were transported to local emergency departments, where my colleagues did everything they could to save them. Jeremy Samuel Faust is an emergency medicine physician at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and a clinical instructor at Harvard Medical School. He is the co-host of FOAMcast. Disclaimer: The opinions expressed in this article are solely those of the author and do not reflect the views and opinions of Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Man-made mass casualty incidents seem increasingly common. But are medical teams actually learning enough from them? Are we really getting any better? The answers are unclear because in the United States since 1996, there has been an effective ban on federally funded research on firearm injuries. At that time, pro-gun members of Congress actually tried to eliminate the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention simply because it was funding research on gun injuries. The members instead succeeded at removing $2.6 million from the House’s CDC budget—the exact amount of money allocated to firearm injury research. (The money was later reallocated specifically for research on traumatic brain injury.) At the time, Congress’ language was difficult to interpret, but the result of that language has been clear as day: The CDC stopped funding gun injury research. The National Institutes of Health followed suit. Almost everyone in the research community now errs on the “safe side.” Research on the epidemiology of who, why, and how people die as a result of gun injuries in America has virtually vanished. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Mama Mia Emergency responders and doctors are reduced to sharing anecdotes when they should be compiling evidence.By Jeremy Samuel Faust of slate.com Reply Please enter your comment! October 12, 2017 at 7:23 pm The reason there is no federally funded study on gun related incidents is because Trump and the NRA don’t want to know the statistics, don’t care anyway, and neither do the rest of the Congressional GOPs that get their big campaign money from the NRA. If it was studied, and presented to Trump, he would declare the results, “FAKE NEWS”. Mr. Trump has now reportedly stated that he hates everybody at the White House. I can only guess, with the WH people and staff there, that he has to work with, the feeling must be mutual. 2 COMMENTS Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Mass casualty incidents involving public scenes like Las Vegas actually account for just 0.3 percent of gun-related deaths (the rest are homicides, suicides, and, rarely, accidents, Ranney points out). But because of the “slippery slope” rationale held by the gun lobby, these markedly different issues have not been appropriately teased out. The entire topic is “political” and therefore untouchable. That means emergency departments like the ones that treated victims from Las Vegas Sunday night and Monday morning are forced to develop their protocols based more on anecdote than evidence. Emergency departments like the ones that treated victims from Las Vegas are forced to develop their protocols based more on anecdote than evidence. Gov. DeSantis says new moment-of-silence law in public schools protects religious freedom October 12, 2017 at 4:25 pm Mama Mia Mr. Trump needs to be impeached as soon as possible, because this country is going down the drain fast, and he is going to get us all killed. I am not convinced that Pence is any better, but maybe he is not as irrational and dangerous as Mr. Trump. Today, there are hundreds of federally funded studies on opioids, compared with approximately a dozen on gun injuries, says Megan L. Ranney, associate professor of emergency medicine at Brown University’s Alpert Medical School, even though opioids and guns kill roughly the same number of people. (President Obama clarified some of the language in 2013 in an effort to encourage new research, with only a modest effect on funding—the NIH briefly funded several firearm-related studies, but the funding was not renewed.) After each catastrophe, leaders such as my colleague Eric Goralnick, medical director for emergency preparedness at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston and a professor at Harvard Medical School and the T.H. Chan School of Public Health, share experiences, both domestically and internationally. Paris learns something from Boston: Tourniquets, long out of fashion, had turned out to be helpful in the field. In turn, Boston had learned something from Aurora: Mass casualty drills in Boston had never accounted for such a large number of victims until officials realized in the wake of Aurora that they needed to prepare for circumstances that had previously seemed too remote to train for.
Jaicon Constructions Architects: Sparks Architects Pty Ltd Area Area of this architecture project Engineer:Stebbing and AssociatesArchitects In Charge:Dan Sparks, Michael Cornish, Rabea Stader, Patrick OzminCity:EumundiCountry:AustraliaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesText description provided by the architects. This forest clearing addressing a pocket of rainforest in the Noosa hinterland, is approached through a typical neighbourhood of rural houses and acreage dwellings. The journey to the house continues from the street via a winding bush track through the forest which acts as a threshold between the constructed world and that of the clearing, a place remnant of early settlement in the region; a camp.Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesFlanking the northern side of the camp is a lush tropical wall of trees, 40m tall. A small creek along this boundary also provides a riparian corridor for local flora and fauna. Due to the limited size of the clearing the house needed to address the full height of the forest ‘wall’ and look to capture the sky above, or risk a feeling of confinement. The scale and density of the surrounding forest also reduces winter sun penetration and ultimately creates its own micro-climate.Save this picture!Floor PlanThe brief called for a 3 bedroom family dwelling with a central open plan living and kitchen space. Responding to this and the unique site, the living space feeds to east and west corridors providing bedroom access, and nooks for study, day bed and storage. The pavilion running along the east-west contour allows all rooms to enjoy the rainforest view to the north maximizing winter solar gain.Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesThe architectural response is a duel concept pairing an operable insulated box for cooler months that allows habitation to a tent-like amenity in warmer months. The walls, or doors, of the box slide open manually, while the roof, or lid, has an automated sliding operation. With the roof fully open the translucent tent membrane comes into view and a new volume, light, and material is experienced. As the doors slide open the forest wall becomes an architectural element; a natural wall that contains a broader space of the house plan, stretching it across the remaining clearing and garden.Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesThe tent roof serves as a ‘fly roof’ above the insulated roof and takes the brunt of the heat load. The void between the two roof elements allows for a simple stack ventilation process. The varied pitches of the tent roof maximise winter sun penetration and protects the east, west and southern exposures.Save this picture!SectionThe choice of dark grounding colours for the box forms a contrast against the white tent and supporting structure. A relationship between the two is nevertheless achieved through subtle shaping of the box – rounding the corners of the building and cabinetry, and expressed CHS columns.Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesTwo primary architectural elements; shelter and security, are tested within this proposition. A dual mode of habitat is achieved – an enclosed and sheltered mode, and the other open and expansive allowing the occupants a direct relationship to their natural surroundings. The building ultimately provides a spatial opportunity that flexes between an interior and an exterior condition at the users’ discretion.Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick JonesThis deceptively small yet undeniably dynamic building allows for the owners to live simply and comfortably whilst maximizing their engagement with a very special site.Project gallerySee allShow lessThe Theatre Under Construction / Stelmach I Partnerzy Biuro ArchitektoniczneSelected ProjectsPeking University Affiliated High School / CrossboundariesSelected Projects Share Australia Photographs: Christopher Frederick Jones Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/805984/tent-house-sparks-architects Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/805984/tent-house-sparks-architects Clipboard Houses Landscape Architect: 2016 “COPY” Year: Tent House / Sparks Architects Save this picture!© Christopher Frederick Jones+ 16 Share Photographs Builder: Manufacturers: Minka Joinery Area: 344 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project CopyHouses•Eumundi, Australia ArchDaily Projects Conlon Group Tent House / Sparks ArchitectsSave this projectSaveTent House / Sparks Architects CopyAbout this officeSparks Architects Pty LtdOfficeFollowProductsSteelConcrete#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesEumundiAustraliaPublished on February 24, 2017Cite: “Tent House / Sparks Architects” 23 Feb 2017. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Photographs: Torsten SeidelProject Team:Yasaman Esmaili, Elizabeth Golden, Mariam Kamara, Philip StraeterStructural Engineer:Urbatec SARLContractor:Entreprise Salou Alpha & FilsMetal Fabrication:Atelier de Technologie MetalliqueLot Size:9600 ft2City:KolloCountry:NigerMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Torsten SeidelRecommended ProductsWoodParklex International S.L.Wood cladding – FacadeWindowsSky-FrameRetractable Insect Screen – Sky-Frame FlyWindowspanoramah!®ah!38 – FlexibilityWindowsAir-LuxSliding Window – CurvedText description provided by the architects. Niamey 2000 is a 1700 square meter (18,000 ft2) housing development that was designed in response to the current housing crisis occurring in Niamey, the capital of Niger. By increasing density, the project proposes a new model for urban housing.Save this picture!© Torsten SeidelSave this picture!Site PlanSave this picture!© Torsten SeidelNiamey is home to over one million inhabitants; a majority of the population is poor and only about 20 percent of its residents could be classified as middle-class and above. Nevertheless, the socio-economic makeup of the city has shifted dramatically in recent years. Stronger economic growth has fueled migration to the city, leading to a sizable increase in the middle-class population. Property in the older, affluent neighborhoods remains unobtainable, forcing the low-to-middle income population to seek affordable housing further from the city center.Save this picture!© Torsten SeidelA New Model for Urban HousingNiamey 2000 takes its inspiration from pre-colonial cities of the region, such as Timbuktu in Mali, Kano in Nigeria, or Zinder in Niger, which were all dense urban centers in their day. The cities’ organic configurations of intricately intertwined homes were often two or three stories in height, while still maintaining a sense of privacy and intimacy.Save this picture!© Torsten SeidelSave this picture!Ground Level PlanSave this picture!© Torsten SeidelLike its early predecessors, Niamey 2000 provides privacy for its inhabitants; however, the project strives to address more than the need for culturally appropriate housing. It takes a firm position on material selection by using unfired, earth masonry and passive cooling techniques to protect against Niger’s scorching temperatures. As is the case in many parts of the world, local materials have been increasingly abandoned in urban centers in favor of concrete. The contemporary design of Niamey 2000 reintroduces locally derived resources to the construction industry and offers affordable homes to a broader range of the city’s growing population.Save this picture!© Torsten SeidelSave this picture!Ventilation SystemSave this picture!© Torsten SeidelAs Niamey continues to grow, and more foreign investors pledge funds for building public as well as private infrastructure, large-scale housing projects are on the horizon. A few, well-conceived projects in the capital–using local expertise and production methods–could set a valuable precedent for Niamey’s future.Save this picture!© Torsten SeidelOriginally published on July 18, 2017. Project gallerySee allShow lessThe F.Forest Office / Atelier BoterSelected ProjectsQ House / BHASelected ProjectsProject locationAddress:Unnamed Road, NigerLocation to be used only as a reference. It could indicate city/country but not exact address. Share Architects: united4design Area Area of this architecture project CopyHousing•Kollo, Niger Niamey 2000 / united4design Housing Projects ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/875897/niamey-2000-united4design Clipboard Niamey 2000 / united4designSave this projectSaveNiamey 2000 / united4design Niger Save this picture!© Torsten Seidel+ 32Curated by Fernanda Castro Share Photographs “COPY” ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/875897/niamey-2000-united4design Clipboard CopyAbout this officeunited4designOfficeFollowProductsConcreteBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousingKolloIcebergNigerPublished on February 09, 2021Cite: “Niamey 2000 / united4design” 09 Feb 2021. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson: RAG fundraising at university helped me find my voice Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson presented the opening plenary on the second day of the Institute of Fundraising’s National Convention at the Barbican Centre in London. She encouraged fundraisers to keep telling the story of the change they help to make.She also told us that she had been involved in fundraising since she was a RAG fundraiser at Loughborough University. About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of GoodJobs.org.uk. Researching massive growth in giving. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6 Howard Lake | 5 July 2016 | News 107 total views, 1 views today Tagged with: National Fundraising Convention You can follow Dame Tanni at @tanni_GT. 108 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis6
Former detainees and supporters speak out about abuse at ICE Hutto Detention Center in Taylor, Texas.In yet another blatant instance of cruel and inhumane treatment of migrant workers in the U.S., a woman in an Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention center attempted suicide after repeated sexual abuse by a guard. (Rewire, Jan. 16)Laura Monterrosa, a Salvadoran, has been held at T. Don Hutto Detention Center in Taylor, Texas, since May 2017. The guard began assaulting her shortly afterwards.Her charges of sexual assault went ignored, according to Grassroots Leadership, a nonprofit social justice advocacy center based in nearby Austin. The center publicized the migrant woman’s plight after detention center officials neglected to provide medical treatment for Monterrosa after her suicide attempt.Monterrosa spoke out about her abuse in November 2017. ICE and the county sheriff’s office did little in response. The guard, continuing to work at the center, saw Monterrosa every day.Monterrosa is not alone in her allegations of abuse. After she spoke out, other women detained in Hutto came forward. ICE declared it found Monterrosa’s allegations to be “unsubstantiated.” That announcement came after only two interviews with Monterrosa, where translation was inadequate and where she was not allowed access to counsel. This additional abuse led to Monterrosa taking over 50 pain pills on Jan. 11, medication given to her by prison medical staff.Suicide common in ICE detentionSuicide attempts at ICE detentions center are tragically common. Hutto, where Monterrosa is still held, is a medium security prison managed by CoreCivic (formerly Corrections Corporation of America), a for-profit “adult corrections company.” Not much improvement can be expected from this incarceration monster.CoreCivic has a long and sordid history of prison abuse, including dangerous and fatal medical neglect, rancid food, cruel and inhumane treatment by guards and staff, including the long-denounced practice of solitary confinement, known to exacerbate trauma and mental health issues.In fact, Monterrosa twice experienced “medical confinement.” That’s how supporters describe what “ICE and private prison companies like CoreCivic use as a form of solitary confinement.” Monterrosa told her supporters that she initially hesitated to go public about her abuse for fear of being subjected to more solitary confinement. (grassrootsleadership.org)In addition, the Hutto Detention Center, which exclusively detains asylum-seeking women, has a long history of sexual abuse. In 2007, a CoreCivic guard was accused of sexually assaulting a woman “while her son was sleeping in his crib inside the cell,” according to Courthouse News. In 2010, another CoreCivic guard was charged with sexually assaulting eight women he was tasked with transporting. (Dec. 12, 2017)Any relief Monterrosa may receive depends on an official investigation being launched. Monterrosa can’t be deported while she waits for an appeal of her original asylum case. This means, say supporters, she will continue to encounter her alleged abuser on a daily basis.One of Monterrosa’s advocates said: “What is happening to Laura is endemic of detention centers and almost impossible to completely eliminate unless we eliminate detention centers. There has been a trail of incidents and most of them go unreported and this is why: they don’t get investigated and the women who come forward are shamed or transferred or otherwise punished.” (rewirenews.org)In 2016, Human Rights Watch issued a report of deaths in ICE custody. Of the 18 people studied, all committed suicide after demonstrating signs of serious mental health conditions.Berenice, a woman of Garifuna descent from Honduras, described life in Dilley Detention Center in Texas as “soul-destroying.” Bernice had organized in Honduras for her people and then had to flee the reactionary regime. When ICE told her she could get out with her child if she paid $5,000 in bail, that might as well have been $5 million. That’s when she tried to kill herself, thinking her child would go free. (Guardian, May 22, 2015)In June 2017, an Afghan national, a woman who had been locked up with her two children, attempted suicide in an attempt to free the children. Samira Hakimi had been held in the Karnes County Residential Center in Texas for six months after crossing into the U.S. from Mexico. She had been told she and her children would be held for only three months. She had no legal counsel and no information about her case, which led to her despair. (HuffPost, June 2017)Fleeing violence, imprisoned in violenceMany female migrants are already fleeing violence against women in their home countries. El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala have female homicide rates among the highest in the world, according to the Washington Office on Latin America. (Feb. 21, 2017)This turmoil is due to U.S. imperialist domination that leads to instability, the lucrative drug industry and political strife based on U.S. policy, such as stealing of elections in Honduras, as well as other social, economic and political turmoil manufactured by the Pentagon, like the 16-year-long war on Afghanistan.Meanwhile, an estimated 80 percent of Central American girls and women are raped on their journey to the U.S.. For them to then be jailed, detained and experience further abuse is deplorable. (HuffPost, Sept. 12, 2014)Conditions for people in detention are only expected to worsen under the Trump administration. What is the solution to this rampant abuse, which is reminiscent of 19th-century prisons?Solidarity. Organization. Fightback. As women march across the U.S. and around the world, the issue of women and trans people in prisons and ICE detentions must be front and center on our agenda.Free them all and jail the oppressors— that’s the solution.To support Laura Monterrosa’s case, visit grassrootsleadership.org.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
News30 jobs on wayBy Bernie English – November 1, 2013 801 EtQ has been in business for 21years. The company is now at a stage where it expects to experience significant growth in Europe and other markets. ”This shows we can competeeffectively for high-end inward investment, ” Deputy O’Donnell added. “Along with this type of high-tech, high-growth investment, we continue to attract very significant investment from established companies. This is the kind of investment mix we need here,” the Fine Gael Deputy said.via 30 jobs on way | Limerick Post Newswrite. “Very importantly, this is a high-growth software company which brings with it the prospect of further job growth in Limerick. It really is a sign of confidence in Limerick that a high-growth US software company like this is to establish a such significant presence here. First Irish death from Coronavirus No vaccines in Limerick yet TAGSfeaturedjobs softwear Print Walk in Covid testing available in Limerick from Saturday 10th April Advertisement Twitter Previous articleClass acts for CUISLENext article39 million spend on home help Bernie Englishhttp://www.limerickpost.ieBernie English has been working as a journalist in national and local media for more than thirty years. She worked as a staff journalist with the Irish Press and Evening Press before moving to Clare. She has worked as a freelance for all of the national newspaper titles and a staff journalist in Limerick, helping to launch the Limerick edition of The Evening Echo. Bernie was involved in the launch of The Clare People where she was responsible for business and industry news. Email THIRTY new jobs are coming for Limerick with the announcement that US software company, is to set up it’s European headquarters here.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up The high-end positions will be for people with computer science qualifications and technical sales capability. The jobs were announced this week among 330 new positions being created in IDA Ireland client companies.Limerick Deputy Kieran O’Donnell welcomed the announcement and hinted at more jobs saying:“I anticipate further good news on the jobs front for Limerick before the end of the year.”Welcoming this announcement he said: “I am delighted to welcome EtQ to Limerick. I am very pleased with the 30 new jobs that are to be created at the EtQ Headquarters. A major factor for EtQ in choosing Limerick was the availability of high-quality employees with computer science qualifications and technical sales ability. WhatsApp RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Facebook Surgeries and clinic cancellations extended Linkedin Shannondoc operating but only by appointment Proceedures and appointments cancelled again at UHL
ColumnsThe Façade Of Facial Neutrality: Do We Respect Our Women, Their Choice? Shivani Vij31 Dec 2020 9:28 PMShare This – xMuch has been said about the Anti-conversion ordinance (Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Ordinance 2020), recently promulgated by the Governor of Uttar Pradesh amidst rising intolerance of inter-faith marriages in the state. Primarily, arguments have been raised and criticism has been shaped around the fundamental right to practice and preach religion of choice as the…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginMuch has been said about the Anti-conversion ordinance (Prohibition of Unlawful Conversion of Religion Ordinance 2020), recently promulgated by the Governor of Uttar Pradesh amidst rising intolerance of inter-faith marriages in the state. Primarily, arguments have been raised and criticism has been shaped around the fundamental right to practice and preach religion of choice as the bedrock of secularism, the basic structure of our Constitution. The religion argument has gained momentum in the backdrop of diverse religious and cultural history of the state, and I believe rightly nips the ordinance in the bud for its unconstitutional restriction on faith on the pretext of ‘public order’. However, I also and more strongly believe that while the ordinance attacks ‘religion’ directly, it attacks and impacts ‘sex’ indirectly. In providing for a harsher punishment for conversion of women to another religion, the new law assumes that (a) women, unlike men, are not agents in the Aristotelian sense and are incapable of making reasoned decisions, particularly regarding marriage and faith. In its implementation, largely to question conversion of women to other religions for the purpose of marriage, (b) the law creates a disparate impact on women and their choice of partner in a marriage. This is evinced by the cases filed thus far in the courts of Delhi & Uttar Pradesh, discussed later in the article. The ordinance thus provides fodder for constitutional challenge on the ground of sex discrimination, i.e. unequal protection of law under Article 14 of the Constitution. Glance at law The Ordinance prohibits conversion to another religion by fraudulent means, misrepresentation, coercion etc. or by marriage (Sec 3, 5) and makes it a punishable offence. It bars marriage for the sole purpose of conversion and also conversion for the purpose of marriage as unlawful and renders such a marriage void (Sec 6). This carries punishment for a minimum of one year and a maximum of five years for any person who unlawfully converts and those who aid, abet or counsel such person (Sec 11). Pertinently, the offence is couched in gender-neutral language and gives the prima facie impression that it applies equally to both sexes. However, a careful examination of the punishment provision reveals that the punishment is higher for conversion of women i.e. a minimum of two years to a maximum of ten years (Sec 5). This is coupled with the fact that punishment for repeat offenders can be double the award of the first conviction. Moreover, the law mandates a declaration to be made to the state administration before conversion to another religion. Here, the provision specifies inclusion of father’s/ husband’s name amongst other details (Sec 9(3)). That apart, the law gives an opportunity to any person related by blood, marriage or adoption of the individual to file the First Information Report in case of unlawful conversion (Sec 4). Objections may also be raised to the conversion by ‘any person’ after the declaration has been made to the District Magistrate (DM) of the locality. These provisions help us draw two concealed yet apparent conclusions about application of the new law. Firstly, a higher punishment for conversion of women and specific disclosure of father’s/ husband’s name reflect a gendered application of law. And secondly, the involvement of family in objecting to marriage after conversion or vice versa, though appears neutral, makes out a special case for women in India, who often find themselves conflicted in a hierarchical and patriarchal family structure to make their own decisions. Normative Agency & Article 21 The law portrays the stringent and gender-tilted punishment provision as a measure possibly to protect women, who are considered a vulnerable group in the society. This may further be supported by the argument that the higher punishment is retained even for other vulnerable groups, such as Scheduled Castes & Tribes. What appears to be a justified objective of the ordinance seems otherwise on a deeper societal and cultural introspection. Such societal reflection in fact suggests that women are lesser able to make their own decisions and choose their own partners in marriage or preach their own faith. At this juncture it is relevant to discuss the Aristotelian theory of human action which focuses on ‘agency’. Agency, as defined by Aristotle, means a fundamental human quality that directs all human action. It is nothing but a manifestation of the capacity to act, make reasoned decisions, to deliberate and to choose. Basis the theory of ‘normative agency’, Griffin developed his account of human rights to state that human rights are only those rights that are capable of furthering this agency i.e. the ability of choice and decision-making. This account of human rights however led to exclusion of some from grant of basic human rights, particularly women. The celebrated academician Sandra Fredman has criticised agency and autonomy (in the Aristotelian sense) as the basis of rights for this very reason. She states that since Aristotle considered agency to be possessed only by rational beings, it was used to exclude women and justify their insubordination in family and state (Sandra Fredman, ‘Comparative Human Rights Law’ (Oxford University Press 2019)). Women were considered to have an unequal propensity to reason. It is for the same reason women were disentitled from voting till 1920s in the US and became entitled considerably after black men were entitled to vote. And the same reason for which choice of women in India is considered less relevant for significant decisions concerning division of property or even choice regarding their own marriage and their own faith. Regrettably, and regressively, the Anti-Conversion Ordinance seems to move in this direction. To put it all in one frame, the ordinance bars conversion to another religion for the purpose of marriage and treats conversion of women a greater offence, deserving a harsher punishment. In doing so, it overly constraints their right to choose a partner in marriage and makes religion a criterion affecting their choice. Sadly enough, this is despite the Apex Court’s ruling in Joseph Shine, where circumstances required the Court to specifically hold the individual choice of women is legally recognized under Article 21 and must be socially respected. Disparate impact & Article 14 Since the ordinance has been enforced, numerous cases of arrest upon conversion have reached the Court on the pretext of lack of consent. The increased litigation is also a result of the offence being made watertight by making it cognizable and non-bailable, with the burden of proof of free consent on the person intending to convert. Besides, it is not a coincidence that most cases under the new law have been instituted by the family of the bride, objecting to marriage outside religion and basing it on lack of the woman’s consent. In the case of Nadeemv. State of UP, a police complaint was registered against the Muslim husband by the family of his Hindu wife on the allegation of unlawful conversion. Making observations that there existed no evidence of coercion and that the complaint was based on mere suspicion, the Allahabad High Court promptly protected the husband from arrest and also cited Puttaswamy to reiterate the right to have relationships guaranteed under the right to privacy. The Court most aptly remarked that an adult woman is aware of her well-being and the consequences of her relationship and her autonomy and agency must be respected. Similar was the fate of the case Shikhav. State of UP, where the High Court held that an adult woman is free to choose her husband and live with him and such choice cannot be interfered with by any third party. In a similar case of Simran Sagar an inter-faith couple that fled UP fearing harassment by vigilantes and arrest under the ordinance, sought police protection from the High Court of Delhi. The Court not only granted protection to the couple but also acceded to the specific direction sought against the woman’s father, to not interfere or impede with the couple’s decision to marry each other. While these are just some examples of cases that have reached the court, it has been reported that out of 14 cases registered under the new law, 13 cases concern conversion of women, where 12 were filed by relatives of her family (reference: Indian Express). The new law has thus come to apply disproportionately to women and has questioned their choice repeatedly at the behest of their family and/ or vigilante groups who have lodged complaints with the police. Having said that, our Courts are adept in applying the equality law jurisprudence on disparate (disproportionate) impact which was specifically recognised by the Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar. In the words of Hon’ble Justice Chandrachud “facially neutral action by the State may have a disproportionate impact upon a particular class” and may therefore cause inequality. The court also cited law from EU (Directive 2006/54/EC) which defines indirect discrimination as discrimination caused by an apparently neutral provision which puts persons of one sex at a particular disadvantage as compared to the other. This is caused due to the personal characteristics attributed to an individual on the basis of association to a group (Andrews v. British Columbia (Canada)). Thus, aim should be to not only prohibit overt discrimination, but also practices that are discriminatory in operation (Griggs v. Duke Power (US). To conclude, a law that questions individual choice in marriage and faith and overpowers it with family choice continues to affect women disproportionately and must invite a challenge on this ground alone. Thus, though the effect of law on religion and privacy cannot be overemphasised, its impact on ‘sex’ and its societal construct forms an equally powerful basis to contest it. In a society that flourishes on hierarchy in family and marriage, equality should not only be formal and superficial, but substantive and meaningful, taking into consideration social factors surrounding the female sex. The ordinance has been placed under a constitutional challenge in a public interest litigation filed by Anil Kumar Yadav before the Allahabad High Court and is listed for hearing on 07 January 2021; the governments of Madhya Pradesh & Himachal Pradesh have nevertheless geared up to implement similar legislation in their states. Be that as it may, till then, we must address – why is the conversion of women more harmful to family and society and such to justify a harsher punishment? Is it any different from saying women constitute the dignity and honour of the family and must be protected? Is it not the same as giving them lesser choice in family and marriage, compared to men? Does this not reinforce and realign the existing hierarchical structures and power imbalance we face as women in the society? Does it not limit us to vagaries of our sex? Does it not discriminate us indirectly on the basis of sex? Views are personal.(Author is a Bachelor of Civil Laws (BCL) Candidate, at the University of Oxford)Subscribe to LiveLaw, enjoy Ad free version and other unlimited features, just INR 599 Click here to Subscribe. All payment options available.loading….Next Story