“The main causes of modern conflicts are discrimination and exclusion, failures of governance, impunity, deep-rooted poverty and lack of opportunities, aggravated by the growing effects of climate change,” Mr. Izetbegovic said during the Assembly’s annual general debate.Past failures have come at a very high human cost, and should have been instructional in how to better prevent and end conflicts. But the scenes from Syria or on Mediterranean shores are a reminder that those lessons have not been learned, he said.Using the advantages of its geopolitical position as a “bridge between the East and the West and a meeting point of civilizations,” his country wishes to advance dialogue and forge partnerships. The previous year has seen a renewed sense of unity and unprecedented levels of commitments in the form of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and others.“Peace is not merely absence of violence,” he said, adding that it represents a freedom from fear and insecurity. There can be no lasting peace and security when injustice and inequality are an everyday experience for millions as the resulting grievances make States unstable and societies vulnerable.He said that the world is facing its worst forced displacement crisis since the Second World War, with 60 million people forced to seek a better future in other countries. They are not “faceless statistics” but human beings with rights to hope and opportunity, he added.Hundreds of thousands of his country’s citizens had been forced out of their homes in the past, so it attaches great significance to addressing the challenge.As a newly elected member of the UN Economic and Social Council, he said Bosnia and Herzegovina will play an active role in implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. However, development must not come at the expense of habitat, and his country is adapting to climate change, with the aim of becoming a viable and advanced “green economy” by 2025. He went on to say that the Agenda is “not the answer to all our problems,” and human rights must be placed at the centre of actions.
RUSSIA’S MOST FAMOUS prisoner and Kremlin critic Mikhail Khodorkovsky reportedly walked free from jail today after spending more than 10 years behind bars, following a surprise pardon by President Vladimir Putin.Putin pardoned Russia’s former richest man on Friday, a day after stunning the country by saying the ex-tycoon asked for clemency on humanitarian grounds as his mother was ill.“Guided by humanitarian principles, I decree that Mikhail Borisovich Khodorkovsky… should be pardoned and freed from any further punishment in the form of imprisonment,” said the decree signed by Putin and published by the Kremlin.Less than a half hour later, Khodorkovsky, 50, walked out of his prison colony in the town of Segezha in the Karelia region of northwestern Russia, the Interfax news agency reported citing a local security source.But Khodorkovsky’s lead lawyer Vadim Klyuvgant said he could neither confirm nor deny this information and prison officials declined immediate comment.The Federal Service for the Execution of Punishment (FSIN) which runs Russia’s prisons issued a statement confirming that Khodorkovsky’s sentence had been terminated but not explicitly confirming he had walked free from the camp.In line with Putin’s decree, Khodorkovsky “has been freed from the further serving of his punishment in the form of imprisonment,” it said in a statement on its website.What role Khodorkovsky will play in Russia after his release is unclear, but it is appears certain that Putin would never had allowed his freedom if he was seen as a threat.AP Photo/Ivan SekretarevKhodorkovsky’s 79-year-old mother Marina, who was caught off guard by Putin’s announcement, said she was still trying to fathom what was happening.“It has not sunk in yet,” Marina Khodorkovskaya said in remarks broadcast on state television. Speaking in a shaky voice, she said she was taking sedatives to calm her nerves.“God, he had mercy,” exclaimed mass-circulation newspaper Moskovsky Komsomolets in a banner headline.Secret servicesKhodorkovsky had been due to be released in August 2014 but Russian prosecutors earlier this month raised the threat of a third trial for the former tycoon on money-laundering charges.Putin told reporters on Thursday that he saw no prospects for the third case.The circumstances of the pardon also remained murky.The former chief of the Yukos oil company had repeatedly said he would not ask Putin for a pardon because it would be tantamount to admitting guilt.The Kommersant broadsheet, citing unnamed sources, said today Khodorkovsky had decided to seek a pardon after a recent meeting with representatives of Russia’s security services, who had raised the menace of a third trial against him. AP Photo/Ivan SekretarevMembers of the security services met with Khodorkovsky told him the health of his cancer-striken mother was worsening and warned him about a possible third criminal case against him.“It would be interesting to understand what he feels right now,” Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny said on his blog, hailing how he had carried “himself with such astonishing dignity all these 10 years.”‘Putin’s trump card’Economists and political analysts put the release down to Kremlin’s bid to improve its dismal rights record and international image ahead of the Winter Olympic Games that Russia is hosting in Sochi in February.While Khodorkovsky’s release was a watershed moment, it would not dramatically change Russia’s battered investment climate or international image, they added.The Eurasia Group consultancy said the former tycoon’s release was a “charm offensive” ahead of the Sochi Olympics amid reports that heads of major states like Barack Obama of the United States and France’s Francois Hollande will not be in attendance.Vedomosti business daily compared the announcement to “a trump card” Putin pulled out of his sleeve at a critical moment.“Khodorkovsky personally no longer presents a threat to the system,” it said, noting that his release would not “heal the wounds inflicted on the economy and society 10 years ago.”Supporters have said that Khodorkovsky had been thrown into jail and found guilty in two separate trials for daring to finance opposition to the Russian strongman.He was snatched off his corporate plane in 2003 soon after Putin warned oligarchs against meddling in politics. He has been held in detention ever since.He and his business partner Platon Lebedev were convicted of fraud and tax evasion in 2005. Khodorkovsky was convicted of embezzlement in a second trial in 2010 and had been due for release in August.- © AFP, 2013Read: Medvedev orders conviction review for Russian tycoon > Read: Moscow court upholds conviction of oil magnate and Putin opponent >