first_imgControlling bodY weight is really a matter of controlling body fat. The most important consideration for health is not total weight, but body composition (proportion of fat to lean mass). Many persons who are ‘overweight’ are also ‘over fat’ and the health risks faced are due to the latter condition.The secret to managing body weight is eating moderately and getting regular physical activity. This adoption of healthy and sustainable habits will maximise energy and reduce the risk of chronic diseases. It will also boost body image as persons are becoming obsessed with weight and shape. However, this is sometimes associated with dangerouseating patterns and disorders.Body weight and body composition are determined by multiple factors that may vary with each individual. Such factors include genetic, physiological and lifestyle trends.Genetic factorsGenes influence body size and shape, body fat distribution and metabolic rates. Genetic factors also affect the ease with which weight is gained and where on the body it is added. If both parents are overweight, it is very likely that their children will be overweight.Physiological factorsn Metabolism this is a key physiological factor. It is the sum of all the vital processes by which food energy and nutrients are made available to the body. The largest component is the Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR). High RMR burns more calories and hence less weight is gained. The vice versa is true for low RMR.n Energy balance if the energy equation is balanced, an individual burns the same amount of calories as he/she consumes and no weight is gained. If more calories are taken in than expended, weight will increase.n Hormones hormonal changes, especially in females, play a role in the accumulation of body fat. For example,hormones during puberty initiates the development of breasts, wider hips and a fat layer beneath the skin. The hormone leptin is said to be linked toobesity.n Weight cycling repeatedly gaining and losing weight (yo-yo dieting) makes the body more efficient at storing calories and more difficult to lose weight.Lifestyle factorsn Eating increased energy intake and decreased physical activity may increase risk for excess body fat and obesity down the line. For example, eating calorie-dense foods of high fat, high sugar and fast foods low in nutrients, sodas and beers. Consider also the proportion sizes of high calorie meals.n Physical activity modern conveniences such as motor vehicles, remote controls, power machines, etc., have reduced daily physical activity. The lifestyle of men has become sedentaryn Psycho-social persons use food as a means of coping with stress and negative emotions. For many, eating provides a powerful distraction from loneliness, anger, boredom, sadness, and feelings of inadequacy. It can be used to combat low moods, low energy levels and low self-esteem. When food and eating becomes the primary means of regulating emotions, binge eating and other unhealthy eating patterns develop. Such practices may lead to obesity or anorexia.It is clear that most weight problems are lifestyle problems. Controlling weight is a matter of adopting healthy behaviours that can be maintained throughout life and will lower the health risks associated with overweight and obesity.Health risksn Being overweight or obese isn’t something to take lightly. These conditions greatly raise risks for other health problems. Excess body fat increases a person’s risk of developing numerous diseases and unhealthy conditions. Obesity is one of six controllable risk factors for heart disease. It also increases risk for other forms of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancers, diabetes, gall bladder disease, respiratory problems, joint diseases, skin problems, impaired immune function and sleep disorders.n Obese people have an overall mortality rate almost twice that of non-obese people. Studies have shown that women who gain more than 22 pounds since they were 18 years old have a sevenfold increase in the risk of heart disease. Studies also confirmed that overweight and obesity shorten lives.n Scientific evidence shows that the way people store fat affects their risk for disease. Statistics show that obese individuals with a lot of abdominal fat are clearly at higher risk than others with a similar amount of body fat stored in other areas (hip, thigh, gluteal). Evidence also indicates that those whose fat deposits around internal organs have an even greater risk for diseases than those with fat deposits beneath the skin.Risk assessment techniquesIt is clear that most weight problems are lifestyle problems. A few management techniques include:n Changes in diet and eating habitsn Increase physical activity and exercisen Get psychological helpn Manage emotionn Develop healthy stress coping skillsn Positive thinkinglast_img read more

first_imgManchester City are ‘easily’ favourites for the Champions League title this season, according to former striker and fan favourite Shaun Goater.Pep Guardiola’s side top their group in Europe after turning on the style to beat Shakhtar Donetsk 3-0 on Tuesday night.City produced perhaps their best performance in Europe to date as they demolished the Ukraine giants on their own turf, despite resting a number of their key first-team players.The likes of Sergio Aguero, Leroy Sane, Bernardo Silva and Kyle Walker started the game on the bench, with goals from Bernardo, David Silva and Aymeric Laporte completing a brilliant team victory. Sergio Aguero is on fire this season and already has nine goals and two assists for City Asked if they could claim a Premier League and Champions League double this season, Goater added: “Yeah. He’s rotating the players really nicely to keep the team ticking over.“Last night we had Sane and Aguero on the bench, so this little rotation with players keeps them fresh for the Premier League and the Champions League.“I’m just really pleased to see how Pep is managing the players. It’s a really strong team with a lot of togetherness.”Listen back to Shaun Goater on the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast IN FULL above! And Goater believes City’s form and amazing strength in depth makes them favourites for the European crown, and gives them a great chance of sealing another Premier League title too.Ahead of Shakhtar game, Guardiola played down his side’s chances of winning the Champions League this season, but Goater told the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast: “I think that’s smoke and mirrors, because I think City are easily the favourites.“Pep’s comments surprise me, I think he’s saying that to just take a little bit of heat off the players and let them build momentum in the Champions League and go from strength to strength.“You look around and see Real Madrid having lots of problems and they’re not really flowing.“For me, a big game will be PSG v Napoli, because both teams play very similarly to City and play a fluent game.“But I think City have got as great a chance as any.” City have lost just one game this season – a 2-1 defeat against Lyon in the Champions League 2 2last_img read more